2002 Pakistani general election

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2002 Pakistani general election

← 1997 10 October 2002 2008 →

All 342 seats in the National Assembly
172 seats needed for a majority
Turnout41.76% (Increase5.97pp)
  First party Second party
Leader Mian Muhammad Azhar Ameen Faheem
Party PML(Q) PPP
Last election 18
Seats won 105 79
Seat change New Increase61
Popular vote 7,500,797 7,616,033
Percentage 25.66% 26.05%

  Third party Fourth party
Leader Fazal-ur-Rehman Javed Hashmi
Party MMA PML(N)
Last election 135
Seats won 59 19
Seat change New Decrease116
Popular vote 3,335,643 3,409,805
Percentage 11.41% 11.66%

Results of elections showing political parties.

Prime Minister before election

Pervez Musharraf (as Chief Executive)
Pakistan Armed Forces

Elected Prime Minister

Zafarullah Khan Jamali

General elections were held in Pakistan on 10 October 2002 to elect the 12th National Assembly and four Provincial Assemblies. The elections were held under the military government of Pervez Musharraf.[1] The two mainstream parties, Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML-N) had several restrictions imposed on them and their leaders Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif were in exile. In order to address the restrictions, PPP created the Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP) under the leadership of Ameen Faheem, to contest the elections on its behalf. The PML-N meanwhile, suffering from the party's division into two factions: one that remained loyal to Sharif and were contesting the elections under the leadership of Javed Hashmi, and the other which had broken away to form the pro-Musharraf Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q) under the leadership of Mian Muhammad Azhar. The emergence of the PML-Q marked the beginning of multi-party politics in the country, bringing an end to the decade-long two-party system between the PPP and PML-N.

The newly formed PML-Q - referred to as King's party due to President Musharraf's support - won the highest number of seats in the National Assembly. Despite the absence of Benazir Bhutto, PPPP came at a close second, and actually dominated in terms of popular vote. In opposition to the liberal regime of Musharraf, Islamist parties had organised themselves into the right-wing alliance Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) prior to elections. The MMA ended up becoming the third largest party in National Assembly. PML-N suffering from Nawaz Sharif's absence and party split, finished fourth. At the provincial level, PPPP emerged as the largest party in Sindh, PML-Q was triumphant in Punjab, whereas MMA won the most seats in NWFP and Balochistan. With help of other pro-Musharraf parties such as MQM and National Alliance, PML-Q formed a government not only in the Centre but also in all provinces besides NWFP. Since Mian Muhammad Azhar had failed to win a seat himself, PML-Q and its allies agreed on the appointment of Zafarullah Jamali as the next Prime Minister


Following the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état, Nawaz Sharif was removed as Prime Minister of Pakistan and Pervez Musharraf assumed control of the executive branch of the Government of Pakistan. In 2000, the Supreme Court ruled that the coup was legal although had to be legitimised by an election. A referendum was held earlier in 2002 to bring legitimacy to Musharraf's presidency, despite being boycotted by the opposition.

Parties and candidates[edit]

More than 70 parties contested the elections. The main parties were the Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP), Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), Muttahida Quami Movement (MQM), Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-e-Azam), which was also called the "King's Party" for its unconditional support of the government, and the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA), an alliance of six religious political parties.

Other known parties contesting at the national level included the six-party National Alliance led by former President Farooq Leghari, Imran Khan's Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf and Tahir-ul-Qadri's Pakistan Awami Tehreek.[1]


In the National Assembly elections, the PPPP received the most votes but the PML-Q won the most seats, winning 126 to the PPPP's 81. At the provincial level, the MMA emerged as the largest party in Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province. The PML-N lost its stronghold of Punjab to the PML-Q, while in Sindh there was a hung parliament, with the PPP winning more seats than the National Alliance. Voter turnout was 41.8%.

Although the founder of the PML-Q Mian Muhammad Azhar was considered the most likely candidate to become Prime Minister, he failed to win a seat in the National Assembly. Instead a senior party leader Zafarullah Khan Jamali was tasked with leading the new government. Meanwhile, the MMA leader Fazal-ur-Rehman became the Leader of the Opposition.

National Assembly[edit]

Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians7,616,03326.056314279
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)7,500,79725.6678234105
Pakistan Muslim League (N)3,409,80511.66153119
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal3,335,64311.414512259
National Alliance1,395,3984.77133016
Muttahida Qaumi Movement932,1663.19133117
Pakistan Muslim League (F)328,9231.134105
Awami National Party299,0671.020000
Pakistan Muslim League (J)283,7550.973104
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf209,5140.721001
Pakistan Awami Tehreek202,8450.691001
Balochistan National Movement107,3550.370000
Pakistan Peoples Party (Sherpao)98,4760.342002
Pashtunkhwa Milli Awami Party96,2520.331001
Jamhoori Wattan Party96,2400.331001
Pakistan Democratic Party83,9760.290000
Pakistan Muslim League (Z)78,7980.271001
Sunni Tehreek72,5830.250000
Balochistan National Party57,8650.201001
Qaumi Movement Pakistan54,0070.181001
Pakistan Shia Political Party42,8550.151001
Saleem Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf32,9580.110000
Pakistan Peoples Party (Shaheed Bhutto)31,2080.110000
Pak Muslim Alliance22,6370.080000
Balochistan National Democratic Party15,2910.050000
Kazmi Nazim-e-Mistafa11,7280.040000
Jamote Qaumi Movement6,2400.020000
Qaumi Jamhoori Party6,2240.020000
Nizam-e-Mustafa Party5,1540.020000
Kakar Jamhoori Party Pakistan4,0740.010000
Mohib-e-Wattan Nowjawan Inqilabion Ki Anjuman (Mnaka)3,8060.010000
Hazara Qaumi Mahaz3,4800.010000
Pak Wattan Party3,0970.010000
Pakistan Awami Party2,9930.010000
Awami Qiadat Party2,9870.010000
National People Party Worker Group2,5150.010000
Pakistan Freedom Party1,8610.010000
Balochistan National Congress1,8320.010000
Ittehad Milli Hazara1,5520.010000
Labour Party Pakistan1,4640.010000
Pakistan Mazdoor Kissan Party1,4370.000000
Tameer-e-Pakistan Party9090.000000
Tehreek Hussainia Pakistan6160.000000
Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan (Nifaz-e-Shariat)5810.000000
Pakistan Workers Party5200.000000
Qaumi Inqilab Party4960.000000
Pakistan Gharib Party4220.000000
Saraiki Sooba Movement Pakistan3480.000000
Shan-e-Pakistan Party2760.000000
Mohajir Ittehad Tehreek2620.000000
Pakistan Seriaki Party2250.000000
Shah Moosvi Awami Qiadat Party2020.000000
Sindh Urban-rurel Alliance1650.000000
Labour Party Pakistan (Krandi)1640.000000
Istiqlil Party1510.000000
Pakistan Ittehad Tehreek1450.000000
Pakistan Social Democratic Party1050.000000
Pakistan Awami Tehreek-e-Inqilab750.000000
Zaheer Markazi Jamat-al-hadais430.000000
Qaumi Tahaffaz Party220.000000
Valid votes29,236,68797.42
Invalid/blank votes775,7202.58
Total votes30,012,407100.00
Registered voters/turnout71,866,27841.76
Source: CLEA, National Assembly

Provincial Assemblies[edit]


Pakistan Muslim League (Q)6,144,81333.33129
Pakistan Peoples Party4,145,10622.4863
Pakistan Muslim League (N)3,028,85616.4338
Source: Free and Fair Election Network (FAFEN)


Pakistan Peoples Party2,115,47235.0451
Muttahida Qaumi Movement898,73314.8832
National Alliance718,42411.9012
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)543,5909.0011
Source: Free and Fair Election Network (FAFEN)

North-West Frontier Province[edit]

Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal792,94926.3948
Pakistan Peoples Party (S)291,2109.699
Awami National Party334,50411.138
Source: Free and Fair Election Network (FAFEN)


Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal188,87816.6413
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)219,02619.3011
National Alliance92,7428.175
Source: Free and Fair Election Network (FAFEN)

Election for Prime Minister[edit]

The election for Prime Minister took place on 21 November 2002.

172 votes required
Zafarullah Khan JamaliPakistan Muslim League (Q)17252.44
Fazal-ur-RehmanMuttahida Majlis-e-Amal8626.22
Shah Mehmood QureshiPakistan Peoples Party7021.34
Source: The Guardian[2]


  1. ^ a b General Elections 2002 – The Story of Pakistan
  2. ^ "Pakistani parliament elects new prime minister". The Guardian. 21 November 2002. Retrieved 10 April 2022.