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2000 (MM) was a century leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2000th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1000th and last year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 2000s decade.
Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium, because of a tendency to group the years according to decimal values, as if non-existent year zero were counted. According to the Gregorian calendar, these distinctions fall to the year 2001, because the 1st century was retroactively said to start with the year AD 1. Since the Gregorian calendar does not have year zero, its first millennium spanned from years 1 to 1000 inclusively and its second millennium from years 1001 to 2000. (For further information, see century and millennium.)
The year 2000 is sometimes abbreviated as "Y2K" (the "Y" stands for "year", and the "K" stands for "kilo" which means "thousand"). The year 2000 was the subject of Y2K concerns, which were fears that computers would not shift from 1999 to 2000 correctly. However, by the end of 1999, many companies had already converted to new, or upgraded, existing software. Some even obtained "Y2K certification". As a result of massive effort, relatively few problems occurred.
- January 6 – The last naturally-conceived Pyrenean ibex is found dead, apparently killed by a falling tree.
- January 10 – America Online announces an agreement to purchase Time Warner for $162 billion (the largest-ever corporate merger).
- January 14
- The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 11,722.98 (at the peak of the Dot-com bubble).
- The United Nations' International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia sentences five Bosnian Croats to up to 25 years in prison for the 1993 killing of more than 100 Bosnian Muslims.
- January 30 – Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashes off the Ivory Coast into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 169 people.
- January 31 – Alaska Airlines Flight 261 crashes off the California coast into the Pacific Ocean; all 88 passengers and crew are killed.
- February 5 – Second Chechen War: Novye Aldi massacre – Russian forces summarily execute 56-60 civilians in a suburb of Grozny.
- February 6 – Second Chechen War: Battle of Grozny (1999–2000) ends as Russian forces conclude capture of the Chechen capital Grozny.
- February 9 – Torrential rains in Africa lead to the worst flooding in Mozambique in 50 years, which lasts until March and kills 800 people.
- February 21 – UNESCO holds the inaugural celebration of International Mother Language Day.
- February 29 – A rare century leap year date occurs. Usually, century years are common years due to not being exactly divisible by 400. 2000 is the first such year to have a February 29 since the year 1600, making it only the second such occasion since the Gregorian Calendar was introduced in the late 16th century. The next such leap year will occur in 2400.
- March 4 – Sony releases the PlayStation 2 in Japan to compete with the Sega Dreamcast. It launches in other countries later in the year.
- March 10 – The NASDAQ Composite Index reaches an all-time high of 5,048. Two weeks later, the NASDAQ-100, S&P 500, and Wilshire 5000 reach their peaks prior to the Dot-com bubble, ending a bull market run that had lasted over 17 years.
- March 12
- March 13 – The United States dollar becomes the official currency of Ecuador, replacing the Ecuadorian sucre.
- March 17 – Uganda mass death: 778 members of the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God die in Uganda.
- April 30 – Canonization of Faustina Kowalska in the presence of 200,000 people and the first Divine Mercy Sunday celebrated worldwide.
- May 1 – A new class of composite material is fabricated, which has a combination of physical properties never before seen in a natural or human-made material.
- May 4 – The 7.6 Mw Central Sulawesi earthquake affects Banggai, Indonesia, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII (Very strong), leaving 46 dead and 264 injured.
- May 5
- May 11 – India's population reaches 1 billion.
- May 13
- May 24 – Real Madrid C.F. defeats Valencia CF 3–0 in the UEFA Champions League Final at Stade de France to win their second title between 1998 and 2002, and their eighth overall.
- June 4 – The 7.9 Mw Enggano earthquake shakes southwestern Sumatra, killing 103 people and injuring at least 2,174.
- June 10–July 2 – Belgium and the Netherlands jointly host the UEFA Euro 2000 football tournament, which is won by France.
- June 17 – A centennial earthquake (6.5 on the Richter scale) hits Iceland on its national day.
- June 26 – A preliminary draft of genomes, as part of the Human Genome Project, is finished. It is announced at the White House by President Clinton.
- July 1 – The Øresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden is officially opened for traffic.
- July 2 – France defeats Italy 2–1 after extra time in the final of the European Championship, becoming the first team to win the World Cup and European Championship consecutively.
- July 7 – The draft assembly of Human Genome Project is announced at the White House by US President Bill Clinton, Francis Collins, and Craig Venter.
- July 10 – In southern Nigeria, a leaking petroleum pipeline explodes, killing about 250 villagers who were scavenging gasoline.
- July 14 – A powerful solar flare, later named the Bastille Day event, causes a geomagnetic storm on Earth.
- July 25 – Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde aircraft, crashes into a hotel in Gonesse just after takeoff from Paris, killing all 109 aboard and 4 in the hotel.
- August 8 – The Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley is raised to the surface after 136 years on the ocean floor.
- August 12 – The Russian submarine Kursk sinks in the Barents Sea during one of the largest Russian naval exercises since the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, resulting in the deaths of all 118 men on board.
- August 14 – Tsar Nicholas II and his family are canonized by the synod of the Russian Orthodox Church.
- September 6 – The last wholly Swedish-owned arms manufacturer, Bofors, is sold to American arms manufacturer United Defense.
- September 6–8 – World leaders attend the Millennium Summit at U.N. Headquarters.
- September 7–14 – Fuel protests take place in the United Kingdom, with refineries blockaded, and supply to the country's network of petrol stations halted.
- September 13 – Steve Jobs introduces the public beta of Mac OS X for US$29.95.
- September 15 – October 1 – The 2000 Summer Olympics, held in Sydney, Australia, is the first Olympic Games of the 2000s.
- September 16 – Ukrainian journalist Georgiy Gongadze is last seen alive; this day is taken as the commemoration date of his death.
- September 26 – The Greek ferry Express Samina sinks off the coast of the island of Paros; 80 out of a total of over 500 passengers perish in one of Greece's worst sea disasters.
- October 3 – Approximate start of Autumn 2000 Western Europe floods (particularly affecting the UK), precipitated by days of heavy rain.
- October 5 – Mass demonstrations in Belgrade lead to resignation of Yugoslavia's president Slobodan Milošević.
- October 11 – 250 million US gallons (950,000 m3) of coal sludge spill in Martin County, Kentucky, United States (considered a greater environmental disaster than the Exxon Valdez oil spill).
- October 12 – In Aden, Yemen, USS Cole is badly damaged by two Al-Qaeda suicide bombers, who place a small boat laden with explosives alongside the United States Navy destroyer, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39.
- October 17 – A Great North Eastern Railway Intercity 225 Express Train is derailed, killing four people and injuring many others, in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.
- October 22
- The Mainichi Shimbun newspaper exposes Japanese archeologist Shinichi Fujimura as a fraud; Japanese archaeologists had based their treatises on his findings.
- Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori and Singaporean Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong formally negotiate Japan-Singapore Economic Agreement for a New Age Partnership (JSEPA).
- October 26 – Pakistani authorities announce that their police have found an apparent mummy of an alleged Persian Princess in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan. The governments of Iran, Pakistan as well as the Taliban of Afghanistan all claim the mummy until Pakistan announces it is a modern-day forgery in April 2001.
- October 31
- November 2 – The first resident crew enters the International Space Station.
- November 7 – The 2000 United States presidential election: No winner can be declared, prompting a controversial recount in Florida.
- November 11 – Kaprun disaster, Austria: A funicular fire in an Alpine tunnel kills 155 skiers and snowboarders.
- November 12 – The United States recognizes the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
- November 17 – A catastrophic landslide in Log pod Mangartom, Slovenia, kills 7, and causes millions of SIT of damage. It is one of the worst catastrophes in Slovenia in the past 100 years.
- November 20 – Alberto Fujimori, President of Peru, faxes his resignation from a hotel room in Japan, after fleeing Peru after facing corruption charges. Fujimori would be officially removed from office by Congress on the 22nd.
- December 7 – Kadisoka temple is discovered in Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
- December 12 – Bush v. Gore: The United States Supreme Court rules that the recount of the 2000 presidential election in Florida should be halted and the original results be certified, thus making George W. Bush the winner of the U.S. presidential election.
- December 15 – The third and final reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is shut down and the station is shut down completely.
- December 24 – The Christmas Eve bombings in several churches in Indonesia, kills 18 people.
- December 25 – The Luoyang Christmas fire at a shopping center in China kills 309 people.
Births and deaths
- Chemistry – Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa
- Economics – James Heckman and Daniel McFadden
- Literature – Gao Xingjian
- Peace – Kim Dae-jung
- Physics – Zhores Alferov, Herbert Kroemer, and Jack Kilby
- Physiology or Medicine – Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, and Eric Kandel
- "2000: International Year for the Culture of Peace". UNESCO. Archived from the original on January 24, 2001.
- "Isaac Newton Maths posters in the London Underground". Archived from the original on October 10, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
- "Y2K, After the Hype". CalendarHome.com. Archived from the original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
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- Smith, Kiona N. (January 23, 2021). "The Species That Went Extinct Twice". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021.
- Arango, Tim (January 10, 2010). "How the AOL-Time Warner Merger Went So Wrong". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010.
- "Dow Jones". U.S. Securities and Exchanges Commission. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
- "REPORT – Accident which occurred on 30 January 2000 in the sea near Abidjan Airport to the Airbus 310–304 registered 5Y-BEN operated by Kenya Airways" (PDF). Bureau of Enquiry and Analysis for Civil Aviation Safety. January 25, 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 30, 2019.
- "Flight 261 Special Report: Alaska Airlines Names Aviation Experts To Conduct Safety Audit". Alaska Airlines. March 24, 2000. Archived from the original on February 12, 2001. Retrieved May 29, 2018. Latest version of rolling report (originally retrieved May 31, 2009)
- Endless brutality: war crimes in Chechnya. Boston, Mass: Physicians for Human Rights. 2001. p. 58. ISBN 9781879707320.
- "Putin: 'Grozny liberated'". BBC News. February 7, 2000. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
- "International Mother Language Day". United Nations. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
- Fifth Anniversary: Nasdaq's record all-time closing high 5,048.62 Archived November 16, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- Ray, Justin (March 30, 2000). "Sea Launch malfunction blamed on software glitch". Spaceflight Now.
- Smith, D. R.; Padilla, WJ; Vier, DC; Nemat-Nasser, SC; Schultz, S (2000). "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity". Physical Review Letters. 84 (18): 4184–7. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..84.4184S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.4184. PMID 10990641.
- McDonald, Kim (March 21, 2000). "UCSD Physicists Develop a New Class of Composite Material with 'Reverse' Physical Properties Never Before Seen". UCSD Science and Engineering. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
- "Planetary Alignment of 5 May 2000". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "Lakeland Ledger - Google News Archive Search".[permanent dead link]
- "Ludington Daily News - Google News Archive Search".[permanent dead link]
- "President Clinton Announces the Completion of the First Survey of the Entire Human Genome". web.ornl.gov (Press release). White House Briefing Room. June 25, 2000. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Watari, Shinichi; Kunitake, Manabu; Watanabe, Takashi (January 2001). "The Bastille Day (14 July 2000) event in historical large sun-earth connection events". Solar Physics. 204: 425–438. Bibcode:2001SoPh..204..425W. doi:10.1023/A:1014273227639. S2CID 117394988. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
- "Apple Releases Mac OS X Public Beta". Apple.com. Apple Inc. September 13, 2000. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "How Hatfield changed the railways". BBC News. September 6, 2005. Archived from the original on January 12, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
- Munakata, Naoko (December 1, 2001). "Evolution of Japan's Policy Toward Economic Integration". Brookings. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022.
- Harding, Luke (November 26, 2000). "Pakistan and Iran fight over mummified princess". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021.
- "Let the new space era begin". ABC. November 6, 2000. Archived from the original on September 17, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- "First crew starts living and working on the International Space Station". European Space Agency. October 31, 2000. Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
- "Florida recounts votes county by county as candidates wait". CNN.com. November 8, 2000. Archived from the original on November 9, 2000. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Vishnu Konoorayar; V. S. Jaya (2005). Disaster Management and Law. Indian Law Institute. p. 214.
- Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute. "Kingdom of Serbia/Yugoslavia". A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776. United States Department of State. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- "Peru's Fujimori resigns". November 20, 2000.
- "Peruvian Lawmakers Kick Fujimori Out of Office". The Washington Post. November 22, 2000. Retrieved June 8, 2022.
- "Bush v. Gore". Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- World Population Prospects Archived December 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 19, 2007.