|Twenty-first census of the United States|
|Total population||248,709,873 ( 9.8%)|
|Most populous ||California|
|Least populous ||Wyoming|
The 1990 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 census.
Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 1990 census, which contained more than 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
To increase black participation in the 1990 United States census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, and Miss America Debbye Turner as spokespeople. The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2062.
This was the first census since 1880 in which Chicago was not the second-largest city, having been overtaken by Los Angeles. As of the 2020 census, Los Angeles has remained the nation's second-largest city.
|Rank||State||Population as of
|Population as of
|—||District of Columbia||606,900||638,333||–31,433||–4.9%|
The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election.
Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 19 seats being switched.
|Gained seven seats||Gained four seats||Gained three seats||Gained one seat||Lost one seat||Lost two seats||Lost three seats|
- "Population and Area (Historical Censuses)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
- Brown, Frank Dexter (February 1990). "The 1990 Census: Will Blacks Be Counted Out?". Black Enterprise. Earl G. Graves, Ltd. 20 (7): 195. ISSN 0006-4165. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- "The "72-Year Rule" – History". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- "1990 Apportionment Results". US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
- "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- U.S. Census Bureau 1990 Census page
- Historic US Census data
- Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1990 Contains 1990 census results
- Booknotes interview with Sam Roberts on Who We Are: A Portrait of America, June 19, 1994.
- 1991 U.S Census Report (contains 1990 census results)