1989 Indian general election
529 of the 543 seats in the Lok Sabha
265 seats needed for a majority
General elections were held in India on 22 and 26 November 1989 to elect the members of the 9th Lok Sabha. The incumbent Indian National Congress government under the premiership of Rajiv Gandhi lost its mandate, even though it was still the largest single party in the Lok Sabha. V. P. Singh, the leader of the second largest party Janata Dal (which also headed the National Front) was invited by the President of India to form the government. The government was formed with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party and a Left Front led by CPI (M). V. P. Singh was sworn in as the seventh Prime Minister of India on 2 December 1989.
The 1989 Indian general election were held because the previous Lok Sabha has been in power for a five years, and the constitution allowed for new elections. Even though Rajiv Gandhi had won the last election by a landslide, this election saw him trying to fight off scandals that had marred his administration.
The Bofors scandal, rising militancy in Punjab, the civil war between LTTE and Sri Lankan government were just some of the problems that stared at Rajiv's government. Rajiv's biggest critic was Vishwanath Pratap Singh, who had held the portfolios of the finance ministry and the defence ministry in the government.
But Singh was soon sacked from the Cabinet and he then resigned from his memberships in the Congress and the Lok Sabha. He formed the Jan Morcha with Arun Nehru and Arif Mohammad Khan and re-entered the Lok Sabha from Allahabad. Witnessing V P Singh's meteoric rise on national stage, Rajiv tried to counter him with another prominent Rajput stalwart Satyendra Narain Singh but failed eventually.
In this election, Assam never went to the polls. Moreover, the State of Goa, Daman and Diu was bifurcated into Goa and Daman & Diu with Goa retaining its 2 seats and the latter gaining 1 seat. Thus the total Lok Sabha seats increased by 1 to a total of 543. Since Assam never went to the polls, the total seats contested in this election was down to 529.
|Indian National Congress||118,894,702||39.53||197|
|Bharatiya Janata Party||34,171,477||11.36||85|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist)||19,691,309||6.55||33|
|Telugu Desam Party||9,909,728||3.29||2|
|Communist Party of India||7,734,697||2.57||12|
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||7,196,099||2.39||0|
|Bahujan Samaj Party||6,213,390||2.07||3|
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||4,518,649||1.50||11|
|Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann)||2,318,872||0.77||6|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party||1,854,276||0.62||4|
|Pattali Makkal Katchi||1,561,371||0.52||0|
|All India Forward Bloc||1,261,310||0.42||3|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||1,032,276||0.34||3|
|Indian Congress (Socialist) – Sarat Chandra Sinha||978,377||0.33||1|
|Indian Union Muslim League||974,234||0.32||2|
|Indian People's Front||737,551||0.25||1|
|Peasants and Workers Party of India||636,589||0.21||0|
|All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen||617,376||0.21||1|
|Lok Dal (Bahuguna)||602,110||0.20||0|
|Bharatiya Republican Paksha||572,434||0.19||0|
|Karnataka Rajya Ryota Sangha||495,565||0.16||0|
|Republican Party of India (Khobragade)||468,615||0.16||0|
|Gorkha National Liberation Front||435,070||0.14||1|
|Shiromani Akali Dal (Badal)||427,609||0.14||0|
|Kerala Congress (M)||352,191||0.12||1|
|Marxist Co-ordination Committee||247,013||0.08||1|
|Nagaland People's Council||239,124||0.08||0|
|Manipur Peoples Party||147,128||0.05||0|
|Republican Party of India||129,300||0.04||0|
|Humanist Party of India||122,947||0.04||0|
|All India Dalit Muslim Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh||120,159||0.04||0|
|Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party||116,392||0.04||1|
|Kuki National Assembly||108,085||0.04||0|
|Shiromani Akali Dal||100,570||0.03||0|
|Marxist Communist Party of India (S.S. Srivastava)||100,300||0.03||0|
|People's Party of Arunachal||96,181||0.03||0|
|Uttar Pradesh Republican Party||91,740||0.03||0|
|Sikkim Sangram Parishad||91,608||0.03||1|
|Jammu & Kashmir National Conference||71,194||0.02||3|
|Mizo National Front||70,749||0.02||0|
|Tharasu Makkal Mandaram||64,885||0.02||0|
|Shoshit Samaj Dal||42,282||0.01||0|
|Uttarakhand Kranti Dal||39,465||0.01||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist)||38,937||0.01||0|
|Muslim Majlis Uttar Pradesh||25,839||0.01||0|
|Proutist Bloc Of India||23,331||0.01||0|
|Jammu & Kashmir Panthers Party||22,625||0.01||0|
|Bharatiya Jana Sangh||22,446||0.01||0|
|Karnataka Gana Parishad||19,593||0.01||0|
|Socialist Party (Lohiya)||17,639||0.01||0|
|Rising Sun Party||12,858||0.00||0|
|Indian Congress (J) Trikha Group||12,539||0.00||0|
|Socialist Unity Centre of India||8,747||0.00||0|
|All India Garib Congress||7,635||0.00||0|
|Hul Jharkhand Party||6,663||0.00||0|
|Bhatiya Krishi Udyog Sangh||5,895||0.00||0|
|Akhil Bhartiya Gorkha League (Budhiman Gurung)||4,426||0.00||0|
|Shoshit Samaj Party||3,756||0.00||0|
|Scientific Vedic Revolutionary Party||3,470||0.00||0|
|Deseeya Karshaka Party||3,059||0.00||0|
|Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad||2,998||0.00||0|
|Barat Desam Labour Party||2,944||0.00||0|
|Progressive Hul Jharkhand||2,890||0.00||0|
|Republicon Presidium Party||2,791||0.00||0|
|West Orissa Peoples Front||2,682||0.00||0|
|West Bengal Socialist Party (Biman Mitra)||2,411||0.00||0|
|All India Shiromani Baba Jiwan Singh Mazhbi Dal||2,368||0.00||0|
|Akhil Bhartiya Hindustani Krantikari Samajwadi Party||2,263||0.00||0|
|Green Party of India||2,142||0.00||0|
|Akhil Baratiya Pichhra Varg Party||2,055||0.00||0|
|Tamil Nadu Peoples Welfare Association||1,964||0.00||0|
|Sadharam Rajya Parishad||1,928||0.00||0|
|Indian National Congress (O) Anti-Merger Group||1,735||0.00||0|
|Gujarat Janata Parishad||1,577||0.00||0|
|All India Justice Party||1,428||0.00||0|
|Peoples Democracy of India||1,392||0.00||0|
|Punjab Peoples Party||1,374||0.00||0|
|Hindustan Janata Party||1,361||0.00||0|
|Bharatha Makkal Congress||1,357||0.00||0|
|Akhil Bhartiya Lok Tantrik Party||1,272||0.00||0|
|Bhartiya Loktantrik Mazdoor Dal||1,035||0.00||0|
|National Republican Party||839||0.00||0|
|Bhartiya Loktantrik Mazdoor Sangh||703||0.00||0|
|Mahabharat Peoples Party||694||0.00||0|
|Indian Union Muslim League (IML)||687||0.00||0|
|Manipur Peoples Council||677||0.00||0|
|Vishal Bharat Pary||621||0.00||0|
|Republican Party of India (Gavai Group)||539||0.00||0|
|Punjab Kairon Dal||493||0.00||0|
|Peoples Party of India||478||0.00||0|
|Indian Labour Party||406||0.00||0|
|Socialist Labour League||391||0.00||0|
|Bharatiya Krantikari Kisan Sang||367||0.00||0|
|Kamaraj Desiya Congress||322||0.00||0|
|Punjab Naya Front||314||0.00||0|
|Hindu Shiv Sena||160||0.00||0|
|Bhartiya Lok Kalyan Dal||145||0.00||0|
|Labour Party of India||99||0.00||0|
V. P. Singh, who was the head of the Janata Dal, was chosen leader of the National Front government. His government fell after Singh, along with Bihar's Chief Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav's government, had Advani arrested in Samastipur and stopped his Ram Rath Yatra, which was going to the Babri Masjid site in Ayodhya on 23 October 1990. Bharatiya Janata Party withdrew their support to Singh government, causing them to lose parliamentary vote of confidence on 7 November 1990.
Chandra Shekhar broke away from the Janata Dal with 64 MPs and formed the Samajwadi Janata Party in 1990. He got outside support from the Congress and became the 9th Prime Minister of India. He finally resigned on 21 June 1991, after the Congress alleged that the government was spying on Rajiv Gandhi.
- ^ a b "INDIA: Parliamentary elections Lok Sabha, 1989". Inter-Parliamentary Union.
- ^ Krishna, India since Independence (2011), p. 343.
- ^ Krishna, India since Independence (2011), p. 349: 'The Rashtrapati Bhawan communiqué that evening was a commentary on the fractured nature of the mandate: "Since the Congress (I), elected to the Ninth Lok Sabha with the largest membership, has opted not to stake its claim for forming the Government, the President invited Mr. V. P. Singh, leader of the second largest party/group, namely the Janata Dal/National Front to form the Government and take a vote of confidence in the Lok Sabha within 30 days of his assuming office."'
- ^ Krishna, India since Independence (2011), p. 347.
- ^ Philip, A. J. (7 September 2006). "Opinion: A gentleman among politicians". The Tribune (Chandigarh).
- ^ "V. P. Singh: Prime Minister of India who tried to improve the lot of the poor". The Independent. 19 December 2008. Archived from the original on 1 May 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- ^ "India's Cabinet Falls as Premier Loses Confidence Vote, by 142–346, and Quits". The New York Times. 8 November 1990.
- Krishna, Ananth V. (2011), India Since Independence: Making Sense Of Indian Politics, Pearson Education India, ISBN 9788131734650
- "Elections 1989: Congress(I) faces prospect of being routed in Bihar". India Today. 30 November 1989.
- Pandya, Haresh (29 November 2008). "V. P. Singh, a Leader of India Who Defended Poor, Dies at 77". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020.