1970 Pakistani general election

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1970 Pakistani general election

← 1965 7 December 1970 1973 (Bangladesh)
1977 (Pakistan) →

300 of the 313 seats in the National Assembly
151 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
Leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Party AL PPP
Seats won 167 86
Popular vote 12,937,162 6,148,923
Percentage 39.20% 18.63%

Results by constituency

Prime Minister before election

None (post vacant since 1958)

Elected Prime Minister

Nurul Amin

General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 December 1970 to elect members of the National Assembly. They were the first direct general elections since the independence of Pakistan and ultimately the only ones held prior to the independence of Bangladesh. Voting took place in 300 general constituencies, of which 162 were in East Pakistan and 138 in West Pakistan. A further thirteen seats were reserved for women (seven of which were in East Pakistan and six of which were in West Pakistan), who were to be elected by members of the National Assembly.[1]

The elections were a fierce contest between two social democratic parties, the west-based Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the east-based Awami League. The Awami League was the sole major party in the east wing, while in the west wing, the PPP faced severe competition from the conservative factions of Muslim League, the largest of which was Muslim League (Qayyum), as well as Islamist parties like Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) and Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan (JUP).

The result was a victory for the Awami League, which gained an absolute majority, winning 160 of the 162 general seats and all seven women's seats in East Pakistan. The PPP won only 81 general seats and five women's seats, all in West Pakistan. In the provincial elections held ten days later, the Awami League again dominated in East Pakistan, while the PPP were the winning party in Punjab and Sindh. The Marxist National Awami Party emerged victorious in Northwest Frontier Province and Balochistan.

The National Assembly was initially not inaugurated as President Yahya Khan and the PPP chairman Zulfikar Ali Bhutto did not want a party from East Pakistan in federal government.[2] Instead, Yahya appointed the veteran Bengali politician Nurul Amin as Prime Minister, asking him to reach a compromise between the PPP and Awami League. However, this move failed as the delay in inauguration had already caused significant unrest in East Pakistan. The situation deteriorated further when Operation Searchlight occurred under the orders of Yahya resulting in a civil war that led to the formation of the independent state of Bangladesh.[3] The Assembly was eventually inaugurated in 1972 after Yahya resigned and handed power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Bhutto became Prime Minister in 1973 after the post was recreated by a new constitution.


On 23 March 1956 Pakistan changed from being a Dominion of the British Commonwealth and became an Islamic republic after framing its own constitution. Although the first general elections were scheduled for early 1959, severe political instability led President Iskander Mirza to abrogate the constitution on 7 October 1958. Mirza imposed martial law and handed power to the Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, General Muhammad Ayub Khan. After assuming presidency, President Ayub Khan promoted himself to the rank of Field marshal and appointed General Muhammad Musa Khan as the new Commander-in-Chief.

On 17 February 1960 President Ayub Khan appointed a commission under Muhammad Shahabuddin, the Chief Justice of Pakistan, to report a political framework for the country. The commission submitted its report on 29 April 1961, and on the basis of this report, a new constitution was framed on 1 March 1962. The new constitution, declaring the country as Republic of Pakistan, brought about a presidential system of government, as opposed to the parliamentary system of government under the 1956 Constitution. The electoral system was made indirect, and the "basic democrats" were declared electoral college for the purpose of electing members of the National and Provincial Assemblies. Under the new system, presidential elections were held on 2 January 1965 which resulted in a victory for Ayub Khan. As years went by, political opposition against President Ayub Khan mounted. In East Pakistan, leader of the Awami League, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, was one of the key leaders to rally opposition to President Ayub Khan. In 1966, he began the Six point movement for East Pakistani autonomy.[citation needed]

In 1968 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was charged with sedition after the government of President Ayub Khan accused him for conspiring with India against the stability of Pakistan.[4] While a conspiracy between Mujib and India for East Pakistan's secession was not itself conclusively proven,[5] it is known that Mujib and the Awami League had held secret meetings with Indian government officials in 1962 and after the 1965 war.[6] This case led to an uprising in East Pakistan which consisted of a series of mass demonstrations and sporadic conflicts between the government forces and protesters.[4] In West Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who served as foreign minister under President Ayub Khan, resigned from his office and founded the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) in 1967. The socialist political party took up opposition to President Ayub Khan as well.

Ayub Khan succumbed to political pressure on 26 March 1969 and handed power to the Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan. President Yahya Khan imposed martial law and the 1962 Constitution was abrogated. On 31 March 1970, President Yahya Khan announced a Legal Framework Order (LFO) which called for direct elections for a unicameral legislature. Many in the West feared the East wing's demand for countrywide provincial autonomy.[7] The purpose of the LFO was to secure the future Constitution which would be written after the election[8] so that it would include safeguards such as preserving Pakistan's territorial integrity and Islamic ideology.[9]

The integrated province of West Pakistan, which was formed on 22 November 1954, was abolished and four provinces were retrieved: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and the North-West Frontier Province. The principles of representation was made on the basis of population, and since East Pakistan had more population than the combined population of the four provinces of West Pakistan, the former got more than half seats in the National Assembly. Yahya Khan ignored reports that Sheikh Mujib planned to disregard the LFO and that India was increasingly interfering in East Pakistan.[10] Nor did he believe that the Awami League would actually sweep the elections in East Pakistan.[11]

A month before the election, the Bhola cyclone struck East Pakistan. This was the deadliest tropical cyclone in world history, killing an estimated 500,000 people. The government was severely criticised for its response to the disaster.

Parties and candidates[edit]

The general elections of 1970 are considered one of the fairest and cleanest elections in the history of Pakistan, with about twenty-four political parties taking part. The general elections presented a picture of a Two-party system, with the Awami League, a Bengali nationalist party, competing against the extremely influential and widely popular Pakistan Peoples Party, a leftist and democratic socialist party which had been a major power-broker in West Pakistan. The Pakistani government supported the pro-Islamic parties since they were committed to strong federalism.[12] The Jamaat-e-Islami suspected that the Awami League had secessionist intentions.[13]

Election campaign in East Pakistan[edit]

The continuous public meetings of the Awami League in East Pakistan and the Pakistan Peoples Party in Western Pakistan attracted huge crowds. The Awami League, a Bengali nationalist party, mobilised support in East Pakistan on the basis of its Six-Points Program (SPP), which was the main attraction in the party's manifesto. In East Pakistan, a huge majority of the Bengali nation favoured the Awami League, under Sheikh Mujib. The party received a huge percentage of the popular vote in East Pakistan and emerged as the largest party in the nation as a whole, gaining the exclusive mandate of Pakistan in terms both of seats and of votes.

The Pakistan Peoples Party failed to win any seats in East Pakistan. On the other hand, the Awami League had failed to gather any seats in West Pakistan. The Awami League's failure to win any seats in the west was used by the leftists led by Zulfikar Bhutto who argued that Mujib had received "no mandate or support from West Pakistan" (ignoring the fact that he himself did not win any seat in East Pakistan).[14]

The then leaders of Pakistan, all from West Pakistan and PPP leaders, strongly opposed the idea of an East Pakistani-led government.[14] Many in Pakistan predicted that the Awami League-controlled government would oversee the passage of a new constitution with a simple majority.[14] Bhutto uttered his infamous phrase "idhar hum, udhar tum" (We rule here, you rule there) – thus dividing Pakistan for the first time orally.[15]

The same attitudes and emotions were also felt in East Pakistan whereas East-Pakistanis absorbed the feeling and reached to the conclusion that Pakistan had been benefited with economic opportunities, investments, and social growth would swiftly depose any East Pakistanis from obtaining those opportunities.[14]

Some Bengalis sided with the Pakistan Peoples' Party and tacitly or openly supported Bhutto and the democratic socialists, such as Jalaludin Abdur Rahim, an influential Bengali in Pakistan and mentor of Bhutto,[14] who was later jailed by Bhutto. Jamat-e-Islami, while supporting allowing the Awami League to form a government, was also against the fragmentation of the country. Conversely, several prominent figures from West Pakistan supported allowing the Awami League to rule, including the poet Faiz Ahmad Faiz and rights activist Malik Ghulam Jilani, father of Asma Jahangir, G.M Syed the founder of Sindhi nationalist party Jeay Sindh Qaumi Mahaz (JSQM) and Abul Ala Maududi, the leader of Jamat-e-Islami.

Elections in West Pakistan[edit]

However, the political position in West Pakistan was completely different from East Pakistan. In West Pakistan, the population was divided between different ideological forces. The right-wing parties, led under Abul Maududi, raised the religious slogans and initially campaigned on an Islamic platform, further promising to enforce Sharia laws in the country. Meanwhile, the founding party of Pakistan and the national conservative Muslim League, that although was divided into three factions (QML, CML, MLC), campaigned on a nationalist platform, promising to initiate the Jinnah reforms as originally envisioned by Jinnah and others in the 1940s. The factions however criticised each other for disobeying the rules laid down by the country's founding father.

The dynamic leadership and charismatic personality of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was highly active and influential in West Pakistan during these days. Bhutto's ideas and the famous slogan "Roti Kapra Aur Makaan" ("Food, Clothing and Shelter") attracted poor communities, students, and the working class to his party. Under Bhutto's leadership the democratic left gathered and united into one party platform for the first time in Pakistan's history. Bhutto and the left-leaning elements attracted the people of the West to participate and vote for the Peoples Party based on a broad hope for a better future for their children and families. As compared to the right-wing and conservatives in West Pakistan, Bhutto and his allies won most of the popular vote, becoming the pre-eminent players in the politics of the West.


A total of 1,957 candidates filed nomination papers for 300 National Assembly seats. After scrutiny and withdrawals, 1,579 eventually contested the elections. The Awami League ran 170 candidates, of which 162 were for constituencies in East Pakistan. Jamaat-e-Islami had the second-highest number of candidates with 151. The Pakistan Peoples Party ran only 120 candidates, of which 103 were from constituencies in Punjab and Sindh, and none in East Pakistan. The PML (Convention) ran 124 candidates, the PML (Council) 119 and the PML (Qayyum) 133.

All thirteen women's seats were uncontested.[16]


167 86 9 7 7 7 7 4 2 1 16

Vote Share of different parties in the election.

  AL (39.20%)
  PPP (18.63%)
  JI (6.03%)
  CML (5.96%)
  PML(Qa) (4.47%)
  JUI (3.98%)
  JUP (3.94%)
  CML (3.34%)
  NAP(W) (2.43%)
  PDP (2.24%)
  IND (7.04%)
  Other Parties (2.76%)

Seat Share of different parties in the election.

  AL (53.35%)
  PPP (27.48%)
  PML(Qa) (2.87%)
  CML (2.23%)
  JUI (2.23%)
  NAP(W) (2.23%)
  JUP (2.23%)
  JI (1.28%)
  CML (0.63%)
  PDP (0.32%)
  IND (5.11%)
  Other Parties (2.76%)

The government claimed a high level of public participation and a voter turnout of almost 63%. The total number of registered voters in the country was 56,941,500 of which 31,211,220 were from East Pakistan and 25,730,280 were from West Pakistan.

Awami League12,937,16239.201607167
Pakistan Peoples Party6,148,92318.6381586
Council Muslim League1,965,6895.96707
Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum)1,473,7494.47909
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam1,315,0713.98707
Markazi Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan1,299,8583.94707
Convention Muslim League1,102,8153.34202
National Awami Party (Wali)801,3552.43617
Pakistan Democratic Party737,9582.24101
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Thanvi)521,7641.58000
Other parties387,9191.18000
Registered voters/turnout56,941,500
Source: Nohlen et al.,[17] Bangladesh Documents

Elected members in eastern Pakistan[edit]

List of members in East Bengal:[18]

Constituency Party Member
NE-1 (Rangpur-I) Awami League Mazahar Hossain
NE-2 (Rangpur-II) Awami League Md. Reazuddin Ahmed
NE-3 (Rangpur-III) Awami League Mohammad Sadakat Hossain
NE-4 (Rangpur-IV) Awami League Lutfor Rahman
NE-5 (Rangpur-V) Awami League Shah Abdul Hamid
NE-6 (Rangpur-VI) Awami League Mohammad Abu Solaiman Mondal
NE-7 (Rangpur-VII) Awami League Mohammad Azizur Rahman
NE-8 (Rangpur-VIII) Awami League Mohammad Nural Haq
NE-9 (Rangpur-IX) Awami League Abdul Awal
NE-10 (Rangpur-X) Awami League Matiur Rahman
NE-11 (Rangpur-XI) Awami League Abdur Rouf
NE-13 (Dinajpur-I) Awami League Musharraf Husayn Chowdhury
NE-14 (Dinajpur-II) Awami League Adv. Azizur Rahman
NE-15 (Dinajpur-III) Awami League Mohammad Moksed Ali
NE-16 (Dinajpur-IV) Awami League Muhammad Yusuf Ali
NE-17 (Dinajpur-V) Awami League Shah Mahatab Ahmad
NE-18 (Dinajpur-VI) Awami League Wakiluddin Mondal
NE-19 (Bogra-I) Awami League Mafiz Ali Chowdhury
NE-20 (Bogra-II) Awami League Mujibur Rahman Mondal
NE-21 (Bogra-III) Awami League Akbar Ali Khan Chowdhury
NE-22 (Bogra-IV) Awami League Mohammad Habibur Rahman
NE-23 (Bogra-V) Awami League Zahidur Rahman
NE-24 (Pabna-I) Awami League Motahar Hossain Talukdar
NE-25 (Pabna-II) Awami League Abdur Rashid Tarkabagish
NE-26 (Pabna-III) Awami League Abdul Momin Talukdar
NE-27 (Pabna-IV) Awami League Syed Hossain Mansur
NE-28 (Pabna-V) Awami League Abu Sayeed
NE-29 (Pabna-VI) Awami League Amjad Hossain
NE-30 (Rajshahi-I) Awami League Atowar Rahman Talukder
NE-31 (Rajshahi-II) Awami League Azizar Rahman
NE-32 (Rajshahi-III) Awami League Mohammad Baitullah
NE-33 (Rajshahi-IV) Awami League Khalid Ali Mia
NE-34 (Rajshahi-V) Awami League Raisud-Din Ahmed
NE-35 (Rajshahi-VI) Awami League Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman
NE-36 (Rajshahi-VII) Awami League Shah Muhammad Zafarullah
NE-37 (Rajshahi-VIII) Awami League Nazmul Hoque Sarkar
NE-38 (Rajshahi-IX) Awami League Sheikh Mobarak Hossain
NE-39 (Kushtia-I) Awami League M Amir-ul Islam
NE-40 (Kushtia-II) Awami League Azizur Rahman Akkas
NE-41 (Kushtia-III) Awami League Mohammad Shahiduddin
NE-42 (Kushtia-IV) Awami League Abzalur Rashid
NE-43 (Jessore-I) Awami League Md. Kamruzzaman
NE-44 (Jessore-II) Awami League Iqbal Anwar Islam
NE-45 (Jessore-III) Awami League Masihur Rahman
NE-46 (Jessore-IV) Awami League Subodh Kumar Mitra
NE-47 (Jessore-V) Awami League Raushan Ali
NE-48 (Jessore-VI) Awami League Muhammad Sohrab Hossain
NE-49 (Jessore-VII) Awami League Khandaker Abdul Hafeez
NE-50 (Khulna-I) Awami League Abul Khayr Shiqdar
NE-51 (Khulna-II) Awami League Sheikh Abdul Aziz
NE-52 (Khulna-III) Awami League Lutfar Rahman
NE-53 (Khulna-IV) Awami League Muhammad Abdul Ghafur
NE-54 (Khulna-V) Awami League Mohammad Mohsin
NE-55 (Khulna-VI) Awami League Salahuddin Yusuf
NE-56 (Khulna-VII) Awami League Muhammad Abdul Ghaffar
NE-57 (Khulna-VIII) Awami League Syed Kamal Bakht
NE-58 (Bakerganj-I) Awami League Abdur Rab Serniabat
NE-59 (Bakerganj-II) Awami League Salehuddin Ahmed
NE-60 (Bakerganj-III) Awami League Nurul Islam Manzur
NE-61 (Bakerganj-IV) Awami League Mohammad Abdul Barek
NE-62 (Bakerganj-V) Awami League Abdul Mannan Howlader
NE-65 (Bakerganj-VIII) Awami League A K Faezul Huq
NE-66 (Bakerganj-IX) Awami League Enayet Hossain Khan
NE-71 (Tangail-I) Awami League Abdul Mannan
NE-72 (Tangail-II) Awami League Shaukat Ali Khan
NE-73 (Tangail-III) Awami League Humayun Khalid
NE-73 (Tangail-IV) Awami League Hatem Ali Talukdar
NE-75 (Tangail-V) Awami League Shamsur Rahman Khan Shahjahan
NE-76 (Mymensingh-I) Awami League Mohammad Abdus Samad
NE-77 (Mymensingh-II) Awami League Karimuzzaman Talukder
NE-78 (Mymensingh-III) Awami League Mohammad Abdul Hakim
NE-79 (Mymensingh-IV) Awami League Anisur Rahman
NE-80 (Mymensingh-V) Awami League Abdul Hakim Sarkar
NE-81 (Mymensingh-VI) Awami League Musharraf Husayn Akhand
NE-82 (Mymensingh-VII) Awami League Ibrahim Sarkar
NE-83 (Mymensingh-VIII) Pakistan Democratic Party Nurul Amin
NE-84 (Mymensingh-IX) Awami League Syed Abdus Sultan
NE-85 (Mymensingh-X) Awami League ANM Nazrul Islam
NE-86 (Mymensingh-XI) Awami League Mohammad Shamsul Huda
NE-87 (Mymensingh-XII) Awami League Sadir Uddin Ahmed
NE-88 (Mymensingh-XIII) Awami League Abdul Momin Taluqdar
NE-89 (Mymensingh-XIV) Awami League Zubed Ali
NE-90 (Mymensingh-XV) Awami League Asaduzzaman Khan
NE-91 (Mymensingh-XVI) Awami League Zillur Rahman
NE-92 (Mymensingh-XVII) Awami League Syed Nazrul Islam
NE-93 (Mymensingh-XVIII) Awami League Mohammad Abdul Hamid
NE-94 (Faridpur-I) Awami League A.B.M. Nurul Islam
NE-95 (Faridpur-II) Awami League Syed Qumrul Islam Saleh Uddin
NE-96 (Faridpur-III) Awami League KM Obaidur Rahman
NE-97 (Faridpur-IV) Awami League Shamsuddin Mollah
NE-98 (Faridpur-V) Awami League Mohammad Abul Khayer
NE-99 (Faridpur-VI) Awami League Mollah Jalaluddin Ahmed
NE-100 (Faridpur-VII) Awami League Adeluddin Ahmad
NE-101 (Faridpur-VIII) Awami League Amjad Husayn Khan
NE-102 (Faridpur-IX) Awami League Abidur Reza Khan
NE-103 (Faridpur-X) Awami League M. A. Kasem
NE-104 (Dacca-I) Awami League Mohammed Nurul Islam
NE-105 (Dacca-II) Awami League Moslem Uddin Khan
NE-106 (Dacca-III) Awami League Khandaker Nurul Islam
NE-107 (Dacca-IV) Awami League Shamsul Haq
NE-108 (Dacca-V) Awami League Tajuddin Ahmad
NE-109 (Dacca-VI) Awami League Ashraf Ali Chowdhury
NE-110 (Dacca-VII) Awami League Zahir Uddin
NE-111 (Dacca-VIII) Awami League Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
NE-112 (Dacca-IX) Awami League Kamal Hossain
NE-113 (Dacca-X) Awami League Fazlur Rahman Bhuiyan
NE-114 (Dacca-XI) Awami League Aftab Uddin Bhuiyan
NE-115 (Dacca-XII) Awami League Abdur Razzaq Bhuiyan
NE-116 (Dacca-XIII) Awami League Shahar Ali Mia
NE-117 (Dacca-XIV) Awami League AKM Samsuzzoha
NE-118 (Dacca-XV) Awami League Kafiluddin Chowdhury
NE-119 (Dacca-XVI) Awami League Abdul Karim Bepari
NE-120 (Sylhet-I) Awami League Mostafa Ali
NE-121 (Sylhet-II) Awami League Mohammad Abdur Rab
NE-122 (Sylhet-III) Awami League Latifur Rahman Chowdhury
NE-123 (Sylhet-IV) Awami League Mohammad Elias
NE-124 (Sylhet-V) Awami League Abdul Muntaquim Chaudhury
NE-125 (Sylhet-VI) Awami League M. A. G. Osmani
NE-126 (Sylhet-VII) Awami League Abdur Rahim
NE-127 (Sylhet-VIII) Awami League Dewan Farid Gazi
NE-128 (Sylhet-IX) Awami League Abdul Hoque
NE-129 (Sylhet-X) Awami League Abdus Samad Azad
NE-130 (Sylhet-XI) Awami League D. M. H Obaidur Raza Chowdhury
NE-131 (Comilla-I) Awami League Taheruddin Thakur
NE-132 (Comilla-II) Awami League Ali Azam
NE-133 (Comilla-III) Awami League Dewan Abul Abbas
NE-134 (Comilla-IV) Awami League Serajul Huq
NE-135 (Comilla-V) Awami League Khurshed Alam
NE-136 (Comilla-VI) Awami League Kazi Zahirul Qayyum
NE-137 (Comilla-VII) Awami League Ahmad Khaliq
NE-138 (Comilla-VIII) Awami League Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
NE-139 (Comilla-IX) Awami League Md Abul Hashem
NE-140 (Comilla-X) Awami League Muhammad Shujat Ali
NE-141 (Comilla-XI) Awami League Abdul Awal
NE-142 (Comilla-XII) Awami League Hafez Habibur Rahman
NE-143 (Comilla-XIII) Awami League Muhammad Waliullah
NE-144 (Comilla-XIV) Awami League Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury
NE-145 (Noakhali-I) Awami League Obaidullah Majumdar
NE-146 (Noakhali-II) Awami League Khawaja Ahmed
NE-147 (Noakhali-III) Awami League Nurul Haque
NE-150 (Noakhali-VI) Awami League Khalid Muhammad Ali
NE-151 (Noakhali-VII) Awami League Md. Hanif
NE-152 (Noakhali-VIII) Awami League Abdur Rashid
NE-154 (Chittagong-II) Awami League Muhammad Abdul Majid
NE-155 (Chittagong-III) Awami League Mohammad Idris
NE-156 (Chittagong-IV) Awami League Syed Fazlul Haq
NE-157 (Chittagong-V) Awami League Mohammad Khaled
NE-158 (Chittagong-VI) Awami League Nurul Islam Chowdhury
NE-159 (Chittagong-VII) Awami League Ataur Rahman Khan Kaiser
NE-160 (Chittagong-VIII) Awami League Abu Saleh Mia
NE-161 (Chittagong-IX) Awami League Nur Ahmad Sawdagar
NE-162 (Hill Tracts) Independent Tridev Roy

Elected members in western Pakistan[edit]

List of members from Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Balochistan:[19][20]

Constituency Party Member
NW-1 Peshawar-I Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Abdul Qayyum Khan (vacated)
Yusuf Khattak (by-election)
NW-2 Peshawar-II National Awami Party Ghulam Faruque Khan
NW-3 Peshawar-III National Awami Party (Wali) Abdul Wali Khan
NW-4 Peshawar-IV Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Abdul Haq Akorwi
NW-5 Hazara-I Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Abdul Hakeem
NW-6 Hazara-II Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Ghulam Ghaus Hazarvi
NW-7 Hazara-III Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Sardar Inayatur Rehman Khan Abbasi
NW-8 Hazara-IV Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Abdul Qayyum Khan
NW-9 Mardan-I Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Abdul Khaliq Khan
NW-10 Mardan-II National Awami Party (Wali) Ameerzada Khan (vacated)
NW-10 Mardan-II Umra Khan (by election)
NW-11 (Mardan cum Hazara) Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Abdul Qayyum Khan (vacated)
NW-11 (Mardan cum Hazara) Muhammad Hanif Khan (by election)
NW-12 (Kohat) Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Moulvi Naimatullah
NW-13 (Dera Ismail Khan) Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Mufti Mehmood
NW-14 (Bannu) Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Moulana Sadar us Shahid
NW-15 (Chitral cum Dir) Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Jafar Ali Shah
NW-16 (Swat-I) Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Rahim Shah
NW-17 (Swat-II) Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Miangul Aurangzeb
NW-18 (Dir) Jamaat-e-Islami Sahibzada Saifullah
NW-19 (Tribal Area-I) Independent Akbar Khan Mohmand
NW-20 (Tribal Area-II) Independent Haji Saleh Khan
NW-21 (Tribal Area-III) Independent Naimatullah Khan Shinwari (vacated)
Haji Gul Muhammad (by election)
NW-22 (Tribal Area-IV) Independent Malik Jahangir Khan
NW-23 (Tribal Area-V) Independent Abdul Malik
NW-24 (Tribal Area-VI) Independent Jamal Dar
NW-25 (Tribal Area-VII) Independent Abdul Subhan Khan
NW-26 (Rawalpindi-I) Pakistan People's Party Khurshid Hassan Mir
NW-27 (Rawalpindi-II) Pakistan People's Party Malik Muhammad Jaffar
NW-28 (Rawalpindi-III) Pakistan People's Party Habib Ahmed
NW-29 (Rawalpindi-IV) Pakistan People's Party Raja Abdul Aziz Bhatti
NW-30 (Campbellpur-I) Council Muslim League Shaukat Hayat Khan
NW-31 (Campbellpur-II) Council Muslim League Pir Syed Saifuddin
NW-32 (Jhelum-I) Pakistan People's Party Dr. Ghulam Hussain
NW-33 (Jhelum-II) Pakistan People's Party Muhammad Amir Khan
NW-34 (Jhelum-III) Pakistan People's Party Malik Muhammad Sadiq
NW-35 (Gujrat-I) Council Muslim League Chaudhry Zahoor Elahi
NW-36 (Gujrat-II) Pakistan People's Party Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (vacated)
NW-36 (Gujrat-II) Muhammad Sardar Khan (by election)
NW-37 (Gujrat-III) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Manzoor Hussain Daudra
NW-38 (Gujrat-IV) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Ghulam Rasool Tarar
NW-39 (Sargodha-I) Chaudhary Jahangir Ali
NW-40 (Sargodha-II) Pakistan People's Party Anwar Ali Noon
NW-41 (Sargodha-III) Pakistan People's Party Hafeezullah Cheema
NW-42 (Sargodha-IV) Council Muslim League Malik Karam Bakhsh Awan
NW-43 (Sargodha-V) Council Muslim League Nawabzada Mian Muhammad Zakir
NW-44 (Mianwali-I) Independent Nawabzada Malik Muzaffar Khan
NW-45 (Mianwali-II) Council Muslim League Ghulam Hassan Khan Dhandala
NW-46 (Jhang-I) Markazi Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Mehar Ghulam Haider Bharwana
NW-47 (Jhang-II) Markazi Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Moulana Muhammad Zakir (d. 1975)
NW-47 (Jhang-II) Pakistan People's Party Sardarzada Muhammad Ali Shah (by election)
NW-48 (Jhang-III) Markazi Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Sahibzada Nazir Sultan
NW-49 (Lyallpur-I) Pakistan People's Party Mukhtar Rana (disqualified)
NW-49 (Lyallpur-I) Muhammad Afzal Randhawa (by election)
NW-50 (Lyallpur-II) Pakistan People's Party Mian Muhammad Attaullah
NW-51 (Lyallpur-III) Pakistan People's Party Ahsanul Haq
NW-52 (Lyallpur-IV) Pakistan People's Party Muhammad Bashir Ahmed
NW-53 (Lyallpur-V) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Muhammad Aslam (d. 1975)
NW-53 (Lyallpur-V) Raja Mubaraz Khan (by election)
NW-54 (Lyallpur-VI) Pakistan People's Party Rai Hafeezullah Khan
NW-55 (Lyallpur-VII) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Muhammad Anwar Ali Khan
NW-56 (Lyallpur-VIII) Pakistan People's Party Ghulam Nabi Chaudhary
NW-57 (Lyallpur-IX) Pakistan People's Party Muhammad Khan Chaudhary
NW-58 (Lahore-I) Pakistan People's Party Malik Muhammad Akhtar
NW-59 (Lahore-II) Pakistan People's Party Mubashir Hassan
NW-60 (Lahore-III) Pakistan People's Party Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (vacated)
Mahmud Ali Kasuri (by election)
NW-61 (Lahore-IV) Pakistan People's Party Sheikh Rasheed Ahmed
NW-62 (Lahore-V) Pakistan People's Party Malik Meraj Khalid
NW-63 (Lahore-VI) Pakistan People's Party Ahmad Raza Khan Kasuri
NW-64 (Lahore-VII) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Shafaat Khan Chohan
NW-65 (Lahore-VIII) Pakistan People's Party Syed Mehmood Abbas Bukhari
NW-66 (Sheikhupura-I) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhry Mumtaz Ahmed
NW-67 (Sheikhupura-II) Pakistan People's Party Mian Hamid Yaseen
NW-68 (Sheikhupura-III) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Muhammad Iqbal (d. 1974)
NW-68 (Sheikhupura-III) Nisar Ahmed (by election)
NW-69 (Sheikhupura-IV) Pakistan People's Party Rai Shahadat Ali Khan
NW-70 (Gujranwala-I) Pakistan People's Party Mian Manzoor-e-Hassan (d. 1974)
Habibur Rahman (by election)
NW-71 (Gujranwala-II) Pakistan People's Party Zulfiqar Ali Bajwa (died)
NW-71 (Gujranwala-II) Ali Muhammad Darriwal (by election)
NW-72 (Gujranwala-III) Pakistan People's Party Ghulam Haider Cheema
NW-73 (Gujranwala-IV) Pakistan People's Party Mian Shahadat Khan
NW-74 (Sialkot-I) Pakistan People's Party Mian Masood Ahmed
NW-75 (Sialkot-II) Pakistan People's Party Kausar Niazi
NW-76 (Sialkot-III) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Nasrullah Khan (vacated)
NW-76 (Sialkot-III) Council Muslim League Abdul Wahid (by election)
NW-77 (Sialkot-IV) Pakistan People's Party Malik Muhammad Suleman
NW-78 (Sialkot-V) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Sultan Ahmed Cheema
NW-79 (Multan-I) Pakistan People's Party Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (vacated)
Sahibzada Farooq Ali (by election)
NW-80 (Multan-II) Pakistan People's Party Sadiq Hussain Qureshi (vacated)
NW-80 (Multan-II) Sajid Pervez Mian (by election)
NW-81 (Multan-III) Pakistan People's Party Sayyid Abbas Hussain Gardezi
NW-82 (Multan-IV) Independent Zafarullah Khan Chaudhary
NW-83 (Multan-V) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Barkatullah
NW-84 (Multan-VI) Council Muslim League Mumtaz Daultana (vacated)
NW-84 (Multan-VI) Mian Riaz Ahmed Khan (by election)
NW-85 (Multan-VII) Pakistan People's Party Khan Irshad Ahmed Khan
NW-86 (Multan-VIII) Pakistan People's Party Syed Nasir Ali Rizvi
NW-87 (Multan-IX) Pakistan People's Party Rana Taj Ahmed Noon
NW-88 (Dera Ghazi Khan-I) Jamaat-e-Islami Nazir Ahmed (died)
NW-88 (Dera Ghazi Khan-I) Khawaja Ghulam Suleman (by election)
NW-89 (Dera Ghazi Khan-II) Independent Sherbaz Khan Mazari
NW-90 (Muzaffargarh-I) Pakistan People's Party Mahar Manzoor Hussain Sumra
NW-91 (Muzaffargarh-II) Pakistan People's Party Ghulam Mustafa Khar (vacated)
NW-91 (Muzaffargarh-II) Mian Ghulam Abbas (by election)
NW-92 (Muzaffargarh-III) Markazi Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Mian Muhammad Ibrahim Barq
NW-93 (Sahiwal-I) Pakistan People's Party Sardar Abdul Aleem
NW-94 (Sahiwal-II) Pakistan People's Party Chaudhary Muhammad Hanif Khan
NW-95 (Sahiwal-III) Pakistan People's Party Haji Muhammad Sadiq
NW-96 (Sahiwal-IV) Pakistan People's Party Rao Khurshid Ali Khan
NW-97 (Sahiwal-V) Pakistan People's Party Mian Muhammad Hassan Khan
NW-98 (Sahiwal-VI) Pakistan People's Party Rao Hashim Khan
NW-99 (Sahiwal-VII) Pakistan People's Party Noor Muhammad
NW-100 (Bahawalpur-I) Council Muslim League Nizamuddin Haider
NW-101 (Bahawalpur-II) Independent Saeed-ur-Rashid Abbasi
NW-102 (Bahawalnagar cum Bahawalpur) Pakistan People's Party Muhammad Shafi
NW-103 (Bahawalnagar-I) Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Syed Rafiq Muhammad Shah
NW-104 (Bahawalnagar-II) Pakistan People's Party Mian Muhammad Rafiq
NW-105 (Rahim Yar Khan-I) Convention Muslim League Khawaja Jamal Muhammad Koreja
NW-106 (Rahim Yar Khan-II) Pakistan People's Party Abdul Nabi Khan Kanju
NW-107 (Rahim Yar Khan-III) Independent Makhdoom Noor Muhammad
NW-108 (Jacobabad) Pakistan People's Party Mir Dariya Khan Khoso
NW-109 (Sukkur-I) Independent Moula Bakhsh Soomro
NW-110 (Sukkur-II) Independent Ali Hassan Mangi
NW-111 (Sukkur-III) Pakistan People's Party Noor Muhammad Khan Lund
NW-112 (Nawabshah-I) Pakistan People's Party Hakim Ali Zardari
NW-113 (Nawabshah-II) Pakistan People's Party Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (vacated)
Ghulam Mujtaba Jatoi (by election)
NW-114 (Khairpur-I) Pakistan People's Party Syed Qaim Ali Shah
NW-115 (Khairpur-II) Pakistan People's Party Pir Syed Abdul Qadir Shah Jillani
NW-116 (Larkana-I) Pakistan People's Party Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
NW-117 (Larkana-II) Pakistan People's Party Mumtaz Bhutto
NW-118 (Hyderabad-I) Markazi Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Syed Muhammad Ali Rizvi
NW-119 (Hyderabad-II) Pakistan People's Party Mir Aijaz Ali Talpur
NW-120 (Hyderabad-III) Pakistan People's Party Makhdoom Muhammad Zaman Talibul Moula
NW-121 (Hyderabad-IV) Pakistan People's Party Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (vacated)
Haji Ali Ahmed Khan (by election)
NW-122 (Tharparkar-I) Pakistan People's Party Mir Ali Bakhsh Khan Talpur
NW-123 (Tharparkar-II) Pakistan People's Party Pir Ghulam Rasool Shah Jillani
NW-124 (Dadu-I) Pakistan People's Party Abdul Hameed Jatoi
NW-125 (Dadu-II) Pakistan People's Party Malik Sikandar Khan
NW-126 (Sanghar) Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) Atta Muhammad Marri
NW-127 (Thatta) Pakistan People's Party Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (vacated)
Ameen Faheem (by election)
NW-128 (Karachi-I) Markazi Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Abdul Mustafa Al-Azhari
NW-129 (Karachi-II) Pakistan People's Party Abdul Hafeez Pirzada
NW-130 (Karachi-III) Pakistan People's Party Abdul Sattar Gabol
NW-131 (Karachi-IV) Jamaat-e-Islami Mehmood Azam Farooqi
NW-132 (Karachi-V) Jamaat-e-Islami Abdul Ghafoor Ahmed
NW-133 (Karachi-VI) Independent Zafar Ahmed Ansari
NW-134 (Karachi-VII) Markazi Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Shah Ahmad Noorani (vacated)
NW-134 (Karachi-VII) Pakistan People's Party Noorul Arfin (by election)
NW-135 (Quetta-I) Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Maulvi Abdul Haq
NW-136 (Quetta-II) National Awami Party (Wali) Khair Bakhsh Marri (vacated)
NW-136 (Quetta-II) Council Muslim League Taj Muhammad Jamali (by-election)
NW-137 (Kalat-I) National Awami Party (Wali) Abdul Hai Baloch
NW-138 (Kalat-II) National Awami Party (Wali) Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo


The elected Assembly initially did not meet as President Yahya Khan and the Pakistan Peoples Party did not want the majority party from East Pakistan forming government. This caused great unrest in East Pakistan. The military junta responded by executing Operation Searchlight, which led to the Bangladesh War of Independence, with East Pakistan becoming the independent state of Bangladesh. The Assembly session was eventually held when Yahya resigned four days after Pakistan surrendered to Bangladesh and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto took over. Bhutto became the Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1973, after the post was recreated by the new Constitution.


  1. ^ Baxter, Craig (1971). "Pakistan Votes -- 1970". Asian Survey. 11 (3): 197–218. doi:10.2307/3024655. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 3024655.
  2. ^ 1970 polls: When election results created a storm Dawn, 8 January 2012
  3. ^ History: Bhutto, Mujib and the generals Dawn, 4 May 2019
  4. ^ a b Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1.
  5. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. The Agartala contacts however did not provide solid evidence of a Mujib-India secessionist conspiracy in East Pakistan
  6. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. It is now clear that Mujib did hold secret discussions with local Indian leaders there in July 1962. Moreover, following the 1965 war there were meetings between Awami League leaders and representatives of the Indian Government at a number of secret locations.
  7. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. When this duly arrived. the western wing's nightmare scenario materialised: either a constitutional deadlock, or the imposition in the whole of the country of the Bengalis' longstanding commitment to unfettered democracy and provincial autonomy.
  8. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. Yahya had made some provision to safeguard the constitutional outcome through the promulgation of the Legal Framework Order (LFO) on 30 March 1970. It set a deadline of 120 days for the framing of a constitution by the National Assembly and reserved to the President the right to authenticate it.
  9. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. It would also have to enshrine the following five principles: an Islamic ideology...and internal affairs and the preservation of the territorial integrity of the country
  10. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. He also refused to countenance intelligence service reports both of Mujib's aim to tear up the LFO after the elections and establish Bangladesh and of India's growing involvement in the affairs of East Pakistan.
  11. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. From November 1969 until the announcement of the national election results, he discounted the possibility of an Awami League landslide in East Pakistan.
  12. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. The regime also increasingly favoured the Islam pasand (Islam loving) parties because of their conservatism and attachment to the idea of a strong central government
  13. ^ Ian Talbot (1998). Pakistan: A Modern History. St. Martin's Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1. The JI itself warned that an Awami League victory would mean the disintegration of Pakistan.
  14. ^ a b c d e Owen Bennett-Jones (2003). Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. Yale University Press. pp. 146–180. ISBN 978-0-300-10147-8.
  15. ^ "Idhar hum, udhar tum: Abbas Athar remembered - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  16. ^ Report on the General Elections in Pakistan, 1972, p167
  17. ^ Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz & Christof Hartmann (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, p686 ISBN 0-19-924958-X
  18. ^ "Notification" (PDF). Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2018.
  19. ^ "1970 General Election Results". Election Pakistan. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  20. ^ 5th National Assembly from 1972 to 10th January 1977 (PDF)

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