1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections

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1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1790 & 1791 August 27, 1792 – September 6, 1793 1794 & 1795 →

All 105 seats in the United States House of Representatives
53 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Frederick Muhlenberg.jpg TheodoreSedgwick.jpg
Leader Frederick Muhlenberg[1] Theodore Sedgwick
Party Anti-Administration Pro-Administration
Leader's seat Pennsylvania at-large Massachusetts 2nd
Last election 30 seats 39 seats
Seats won 54 51
Seat change Increase 24 Increase 12

3rdHouse.svg
Results:
     Pro-Administration (F) majority
     Anti-Administration (DR) majority
     Even split

Speaker before election

Jonathan Trumbull
Pro-Administration

Elected Speaker

Frederick Muhlenberg
Anti-Administration

The 1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections coincided with the re-election of President George Washington. While Washington ran for president as an independent, his followers (more specifically, the supporters of Alexander Hamilton) formed the nation's first organized political party, the Federalist Party, whose members and sympathizers are identified as pro-Administration on this page. In response, followers of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison created the opposition Democratic-Republican Party, who are identified as anti-Administration on this page. The Federalists promoted urbanization, industrialization, mercantilism, centralized government, and a broad interpretation of the United States Constitution. In contrast, Democratic-Republicans supported the ideal of an agrarian republic made up of self-sufficient farmers and small, localized governments with limited power.

Despite nearly unanimous support for Washington as a presidential candidate, Jeffersonian ideas edged out Hamiltonian principles at the ballot box for congressional candidates, with the Democratic-Republicans taking 24 seats more than they had prior to the organization of their political movement. Most of the increase was due to the addition of new seats in Western regions as a result of the United States census of 1790. Dominated by agrarian culture, these Western territories offered strong support to Democratic-Republican congressional candidates. As a result, they secured a thin majority in the legislature.

Election summaries[edit]

•In this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election, a In this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general elections early as August 1792 (in New Hampshire and Rhode Island) and as late as September 1793 (in Kentucky). In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year), but as the first session of Congress typically began in November or December, the elections took place before Congress actually met. The 3rd Congress first met on December 2, 1793.

These were the first elections held after reapportionment following the first census. Thirty-six new seats were added,[2] with 1 state losing 1 seat, 3 states having no change, and the remaining 11 states gaining between 1 and 9 seats. This was the first apportionment based on actual census data, the apportionment for the 1st and 2nd Congresses being set by the Constitution using estimated populations.

3rd Congress United States House of Representatives.svg
54 51
Anti-Administration Pro-Administration
State Type Date Total
seats
Anti-
Administration
Pro-Administration
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
General elections
New Hampshire At-large August 27, 1792 4 Increase1 1 Increase1 3 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 28, 1792 2 Increase1 0 Increase1 2 Steady
Connecticut At-large September 17, 1792 7 Increase2 0 Steady 7 Increase2
Georgia At-large October 1, 1792 2 Decrease1 2 Decrease1 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 1, 1792 8 Increase2 4 Increase1 4 Increase1
Delaware At-large October 2, 1792 1 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1
New Jersey At-large October 9, 1792 5 Increase1 0 Steady 5 Increase1
Pennsylvania At-large October 9, 1792 13 Increase5 8 Increase4 5 Increase1
Massachusetts Mixed November 2, 1792[a] 14 Increase6 3 Increase2 11 Increase4
New York Districts January 2, 1793 10 Increase4 3 Increase1 7 Increase3
Vermont Districts January 7, 1793[b] 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts February 5, 1793 6 Increase1 5 Increase3 1 Decrease2
North Carolina Districts February 15, 1793 10 Increase5 9 Increase6 1 Decrease1
Late elections (after the March 4, 1793 beginning of the 3rd Congress)
Virginia Districts March 18, 1793 19 Increase9 15 Increase7 4 Increase2
Kentucky Districts September 6, 1793 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Total 105 Increase 36 54
51.4%
Increase 24 51
48.6%
Increase 12
House seats
Anti-Admin
51.43%
Pro-Admin
48.57%

Change in composition[edit]

End of the 2nd Congress[edit]

With new seats, due to reapportionment, outlined.

 
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A V P P P
Majority → P
P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
 

Result of the elections[edit]

A A A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
Majority → A
P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P A A
P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P P P
Key:
A Anti-Administration
P Pro-Administration
V Vacant

Special elections[edit]

There were special elections in 1792 and 1793 during the 2nd and 3rd United States Congresses.

Elections are sorted here by state then district.

2nd Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
"Southern District"
Kentucky admitted June 1, 1792. New member elected September 7, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated November 9, 1792.[3]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Kentucky 2
"Northern District"
Kentucky admitted June 1, 1792. New member elected September 7, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated November 8, 1792.[3]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Georgia 1 Anthony Wayne Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent disqualified March 21, 1792.
New member elected July 9, 1792.
Anti-Administration hold.
Winner later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
Maryland 2 Joshua Seney Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent resigned December 6, 1792 to become Chief Justice of Maryland's 3rd Judicial District.
New member elected January 7–10, 1793.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner was already elected to the next term, see below.

3rd Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned to become Associate Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.
New member elected April 8, 1793.[d]
Pro-Administration hold.
Connecticut at-large Benjamin Huntington Pro-Administration 1788 Representative-elect resigned.
New member elected September 16, 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.
Connecticut at-large Jonathan Ingersoll Pro-Administration 1793 (Special) Representative-elect Ingersoll declined the seat and Representative-elect Mitchell resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Two new members elected on a general ticket November 11, 1793.
Two Pro-Administration holds.
Connecticut at-large Stephen M. Mitchell Pro-Administration 1792

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1790 census.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
James Hillhouse Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
Amasa Learned Pro-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

Three special elections followed the 1792 elections in Connecticut after Representatives-elect Sturges and Huntington resigned before the start of Congress and Mitchell was elected to the Senate.

Delaware[edit]

Delaware's apportionment did not change following the 1790 census. As in the 1st and 2nd Congresses, each voter cast votes for two separate candidates, at least one of whom had to be from a different county as the voter.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large John M. Vining Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Election was later challenged and overturned.[1]

Georgia[edit]

Following the 1790 census, Georgia's apportionment was decreased from 3 seats to 2 (the only state whose representation decreased after the census). Georgia switched from separate districts to at-large seats.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Abraham Baldwin
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
John Milledge
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1792 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Francis Willis
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration loss.

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
"Southern District"
Christopher Greenup Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 2
"Northern district"
Alexander D. Orr Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Incumbent re-elected.

Maryland[edit]

Maryland increased from 6 to 8 representatives after the 1790 census. The previous mixed district/at-large system was replaced with a conventional district system.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1 Philip Key Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Maryland 2 John Francis Mercer
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY Uriah Forrest (Pro-Admin) 71.8%
  • William Dorsey (Anti-Admin) 28.1%
  • Others 0.1%
Maryland 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Maryland 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY Samuel Smith (Anti-Admin) 61.1%
  • Charles Ridgely (Anti-Admin) 38.9%
Maryland 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Maryland 7 Joshua Seney
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Incumbent then resigned December 6, 1792 to become Chief Justice of Maryland's 3rd Judicial District.
Winner was then also elected to finish the term, see above.
Maryland 8 William V. Murray
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.

Massachusetts[edit]

Following the 1790 Census, Massachusetts's representation increased from eight to fourteen Representatives and was redistricted into four plural districts, plus a single at-large district. The 4th district covered the District of Maine (the modern-day State of Maine). The plural districts were concurrent tickets rather than a single general ticket, though the 1st and 2nd districts appeared to have also had a general ticket alongside the more specific tickets.

As before, a majority was required for election, in those districts where a majority was not achieved, additional ballots were required.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat A: At-large
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat B: Essex County
Benjamin Goodhue
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat C: Middlesex County
Elbridge Gerry
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat D: Suffolk County
Fisher Ames Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat A: At-large
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat B: Berkshire County
Theodore Sedgwick
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat C: Hampshire County
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat D: Worcester County
Artemas Ward
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 3 (2 seats)
Seat A: Barnstable, Dukes, & Nantucket Counties
George Leonard
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Massachusetts 3 (2 seats)
Seat B: Bristol & Plymouth Counties
Shearjashub Bourne
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (November 2, 1792):

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat A: Cumberland County
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
  • Daniel Davis 40.0%
  • Peleg Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 38.6%
  • Robert Southgate 11.7%
  • Josiah Thacker 9.8%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat B: Lincoln, Hancock, & Washington Counties
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat C: York County
George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 8th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY George Thatcher (Pro-Admin) 57.7%
  • Nathaniel Wells 35.4%
  • Tristan Jordan 6.9%
Massachusetts at-large None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire increased from 3 seats to 4 seats after the 1790 census.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Jeremiah Smith Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel Livermore Pro-Administration 1789 Retired
Anti-Administration gain.
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

New Jersey[edit]

Following the 1790 census, New Jersey's apportionment increased from 4 to 5 seats.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[f]
New Jersey at-large
5 seats on a general ticket
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Abraham Clark Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Dayton Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Aaron Kitchell Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

New York[edit]

Due to re-apportionment following the 1790 census, New York's congressional delegation grew from 6 to 10. Three incumbents ran for re-election, two of whom won, and the other three incumbents retired. With the increase following re-apportionment, this left seven open seats.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1 Thomas Tredwell Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
New York 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY John Watts (Pro-Admin) 72.6%
  • William S. Livingston (Anti-Admin) 27.3%
New York 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
New York 4 Cornelius C. Schoonmaker Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
New York 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
New York 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
New York 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY John Evert Van Alen (Pro-Admin) 56.9%
  • Henry K. Van Rensselaer (Anti-Admin) 42.5%
  • Thomas Sickles (Anti-Admin) 0.6%
New York 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
New York 9 James Gordon
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY Silas Talbot (Pro-Admin) 34.1%
  • William Cooper (Pro-Admin) 26.6%
  • John Winn (Anti-Admin) 25.7%
  • Andrew Fink (Anti-Admin) 11.3%
  • Josiah Crane (Anti-Admin) 2.4%

North Carolina[edit]

Following the 1790 census, North Carolina's apportionment increased from 5 to 10 seats.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
North Carolina 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
North Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
North Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY Alexander Mebane (Anti-Admin) 44.8%
  • Stephen Moore (Pro-Admin) 39.0%
  • Ambrose Ramsay 16.2%
North Carolina 5 Nathaniel Macon
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
North Carolina 7 William B. Grove
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
North Carolina 9 John B. Ashe
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
North Carolina 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania switched from using districts to electing its representatives on an at-large basis for the 3rd Congress, just as it had done for the 1st Congress. This would be the last time that Pennsylvania would elect all of its Representatives at-large. Due to re-apportionment following the 1790 census, Pennsylvania's delegation increased from 8 representatives to 13.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[8]
Pennsylvania at-large
13 seats on a general ticket
Thomas Fitzsimons
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Frederick Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Israel Jacobs
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Daniel Hiester
Redistricted from the 4th district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
John W. Kittera
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Andrew Gregg
Redistricted from the 6th district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas Hartley
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
William Findley
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island gained a second representative from the results of the 1790 census. Rhode Island did not divide itself into districts, but elected two at-large representatives.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats elected at-large on a general ticket
Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina gained one representative as a result of the 1790 census, increasing from 5 to 6.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas Tudor Tucker
Redistricted from the 5th district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Anti-Administration loss.
South Carolina 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
South Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
South Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
South Carolina 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.

Vermont[edit]

Vermont had no apportionment in the House of Representatives before 1790 census because it was not admitted to the Union until 1791. Vermont's election laws at the time required a majority to win election to the House of Representatives. If no candidate won a majority, a runoff election was held, which happened in the 1st district.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[f]
Vermont 1
"Western district"
Israel Smith Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (January 7, 1793):

Second ballot (March 20, 1793):
Vermont 2
"Eastern district"
Nathaniel Niles Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.

Virginia[edit]

Virginia gained nine representatives from the 1790 census, and in addition, the old 2nd district was lost after its territory became the new State of Kentucky. There were, therefore, ten new districts created for the 3rd Congress.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1 Alexander White Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia 2 Andrew Moore
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Results subsequently challenged but upheld.
Virginia 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY George Hancock (Pro-Admin) 60.5%
  • Charles Clay 34.0%
  • Calohill Minnis 5.5%
Virginia 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia 7 Abraham B. Venable
Redistricted from the 6th district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia 11 Josiah Parker
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
as Pro-Administration
Virginia 12 John Page
Redistricted from the 7th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 13 Samuel Griffin
Redistricted from the 10th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
as Pro-Administration
Virginia 14 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia 15 James Madison Jr.
Redistricted from the 5th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 16 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia 17 Richard Bland Lee
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 18 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia 19 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Massachusetts required a majority for election, which led to additional ballots on January 14, 1793 and April 1, 1793.
  2. ^ Vermont required a majority for election, which led to an additional ballot on March 20, 1793.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data.
  4. ^ Date given for the start of the term, of the person elected at the special election.[6] In some cases this is clearly wrong as the date of the legal start of the Congress is given, even though the member was elected at a later date.
  5. ^ a b Party affiliation not given in source
  6. ^ a b Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed.
  7. ^ a b Source does not give full name.
  8. ^ Numbers of votes missing or incomplete in source.
  9. ^ Four individuals received 1 vote each.
  10. ^ a b Had been Anti-Administration in the previous election.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Third Congress (membership roster)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 6, 2014. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  2. ^ Stat. 253
  3. ^ a b "Second Congress (membership roster) – see footnotes 12 and 13" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  4. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  5. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  6. ^ See Congressional Biographical Directory.
  7. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  8. ^ "Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project" (PDF).
  9. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu. Retrieved September 23, 2020.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]