|U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW|
Macron below is a combining diacritical mark that is used in various orthographies.
A non-combining form is U+02CD ˍ MODIFIER LETTER LOW MACRON. It is not to be confused with U+0320 ◌̠ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW, U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE and U+005F _ LOW LINE. The difference between "macron below" and "low line" is that the latter results in an unbroken underline when it is run together: compare a̱ḇc̱ and a̲b̲c̲ (only the latter should look like abc).
Macron below character
Unicode defines several characters for the macron below:
There are many similar marks covered elsewhere:
- Spacing underscores, including
- U+005F _ LOW LINE (_, _)
- U+2017 ‗ DOUBLE LOW LINE
- Combining underlines, including
- U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE
- U+0333 ◌̳ COMBINING DOUBLE LOW LINE
- U+0347 ◌͇ COMBINING EQUALS SIGN BELOW;
- U+FE2B ◌︫ COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF BELOW
- U+FE2C ◌︬ COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF BELOW
- U+FE2D ◌︭ COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON BELOW
- International Phonetic Alphabet mark for retracted or backed articulation:
- U+0320 ◌̠ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW
- U+02D7 ˗ MODIFIER LETTER MINUS SIGN
Various precomposed letters with a macron below are defined in Unicode:
|upper case||lower case||notes|
|Ḇ||U+1E06||Ḇ||ḇ||U+1E07||ḇ||Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter beth (ב) representing [v], or perhaps [β].|
|Ḏ||U+1E0E||Ḏ||ḏ||U+1E0F||ḏ||Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter dalet (ד), [ð], and in the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex D. In Dravidian languages' transcription it represents an alveolar /d/.|
|ẖ||U+1E96||ẖ||Sometimes used for Arabic خ ẖāʼ, Hebrew Heth (letter), Egyptian 𓄡.
There is no precomposed upper case equivalent of ẖ so it uses a combining macron below instead: H̱.
|Ḵ||U+1E34||Ḵ||ḵ||U+1E35||ḵ||Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter kaph (כ) representing [x].|
Used in Tlingit and Haida (among other Pacific Northwest languages) for the voiceless uvular stop [q]. Close to Korean ㄲ kk; closest English "shocking"
Used optionally in the K-dialect of Māori in the South Island of New Zealand, where an original ng has merged with k. The ḵ indicates that it corresponds to ng in other dialects. There is no difference in pronunciation between ḵ and k.
|Ḻ||U+1E3A||Ḻ||ḻ||U+1E3B||ḻ||One possible transliteration of the Dravidian retroflex approximant /ɻ/ as in Tamil letter ழ. Ḻ is used in the Seri language to represent [l], like English l, while unmodified "l" represents [ɬ], like Welsh ll. It is also used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun.|
|Ṉ||U+1E48||Ṉ||ṉ||U+1E49||ṉ||Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent [ɳ], and in Saanich to represent both plain and glottalized [ɴ]. In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex N. In Dravidian languages' transcription it represents an alveolar /n/.|
|Ṟ||U+1E5E||Ṟ||ṟ||U+1E5F||ṟ||Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent [ɻ], and sometimes in the romanization of Pashto to represent the retroflex R. In Dravidian languages' transcription it represents an alveolar trill /r/.|
|Ṯ||U+1E6E||Ṯ||ṯ||U+1E6F||ṯ||Used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun language representing [t̪]. In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex T. In Dravidian languages' transcription it represents an alveolar /t/. In the romanization of Arabic this letter is used to transcribe the letter Ṯāʾ.|
|Ẕ||U+1E94||Ẕ||ẕ||U+1E95||ẕ||Used in the 1953 Hebrew Academy Romanization of Hebrew to represent tsade (צ).|
Note that the Unicode character names of precomposed characters whose decompositions contain U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW use "WITH LINE BELOW" rather than "WITH MACRON BELOW". Thus, U+1E07 ḇ LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH LINE BELOW decomposes to U+0062 b LATIN SMALL LETTER B and U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW.
The Vietnamese đồng currency sign resembles a lower case d with a stroke and macron below: U+20AB ₫ DONG SIGN but is neither a letter nor decomposable.
- ^ a b "Combining Diacritical Marks Code Chart, Range: 0300–036F" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
- ^ "6.2 General Punctuation" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Version 11.0.0. Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium. 2018. p. 273. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
Spacing Overscores and Underscores. U+203E OVERLINE is the above-the-line counterpart to U+005F low line. It is a spacing character, not to be confused with U+0305 COMBINING OVERLINE. As with all overscores and underscores, a sequence of these characters should connect in an unbroken line. The overscoring characters also must be distinguished from U+0304 COMBINING MACRON, which does not connect horizontally in this way.
- ^ "Latin Extended Additional Code Chart, Range: 1E00–1EFF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
- ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.